Frontline: Diabetes Treatment; Exercise for Improving Memory; Colorectal Cancer Risk

New Guidelines for Diabetes Treatment

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recently released its 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. The ADA recommends that patients who have type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease use medications that have proven cardiovascular benefits, such as Victoza®, and/or medications associated with mortality reduction, such as Jardiance®. These recommendations apply to patients who have been unable to meet their blood glucose targets by making lifestyle changes and taking metformin. The guidelines also provide information on the costs of and risks associated with various diabetes medications to be considered by the patient and his or her healthcare provider when determining which medication is the best choice for the patient. Other topics addressed by the guidelines include how to optimize care for elderly patients with diabetes and glucose screening for adolescents at high risk of developing diabetes.

Exercise Recommended for Improving Memory

For people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), exercise may be one of the best medicines, according to guidelines published online Dec. 27, 2017 in the journal Neurology. MCI is a condition characterized by problems with memory, judgment, thinking, and language that do not interfere significantly with activities of daily life, but are greater than cognitive changes associated with normal aging. The researchers found that people who exercised twice a week had a reduced risk of suffering further cognitive decline. The lead author of the study, director of the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Mayo Clinic, recommended getting moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking or jogging, for 150 minutes each week. The guidelines also said there is some evidence that people with MCI may benefit from cognitive training, which includes repetitive memory and reasoning exercises.

Anti-Inflammatory Diet May Reduce Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Eating a diet that is high in pro-inflammatory foods is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, according to a study published online Jan. 18, 2018 in JAMA Oncology. The study analyzed dietary data collected every four years on more than 120,000 adults over a 26-year period. The participants whose diets scored highest on the inflammatory pattern had a 22 percent higher risk of colorectal cancer than those whose diets scored lowest. Foods linked with higher levels of inflammatory markers included red meat, processed meat, refined grains, and high-calorie and low-calorie carbonated beverages, and food linked with lower levels of inflammatory markers included green leafy vegetables, dark yellow vegetables (carrots, yellow squash, sweet potatoes), fruit juices, tea, coffee, beer, and wine.

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